RICERCATORE SOCIALE IN ETIOPIA
The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia is the second most populous country in Sub-Saharan Africa, with a population of 81.9 million. Nearly 85 per cent of the population lives in rural areas and much of the population is dependent upon subsistence agriculture and livestock for their livelihood and survival. In spite of moderately strong economic growth in recent years, surpassing 8% per annum (World Bank), Ethiopia remains one of the world’s poorest countries, and has a Human Development Index of only 0.414, ranked at 171 out of the 180 UN member states. Ethiopia is divided into 9 Regional States and 2 City Administrations, Women and children below the age of 15 constitute about three-quarters of the population. Life expectancy for both sexes, which averaged 47 years in 1993, currently stands at 54 years.
The country is prone to drought, famine and degradation of natural resources; and has a severe urban HIV epidemic. With a national adult HIV prevalence of 2.4% (7.7% for urban and 0.9% for rural areas) , an estimated 1,216,908 (499,239 males, 717,669 females) people live with HIV/AIDS . The epidemic has resulted in an alarming loss of breadwinners, an increase in the number of orphans and other vulnerable children (OVC) as well as a rapid decline in the traditional extended family support mechanism. There are an estimated 5,459,139 orphans in the country, of which at least between 800,000 and 1.2 million were made orphans due to AIDS - one of the highest absolute numbers in the world . Hence, an increasing number of households are headed by grandparents or by children without adult supervision.
As a result, many children are destitute and lack fulfilment of the right to education, right to food/nutrition, health care, protection, recreation, guidance & counselling and some children find themselves outside of adequate parental care during the most critical period of their lives. In most instances, these children are forced to submit themselves to economic exploitation and to perform hazardous or harmful work in order to survive.
In order to address the grave situation of thousands of vulnerable children in Ethiopia, UNICEF Ethiopia has been working with various governmental and nongovernmental organizations. UNICEF has recently embarked on developing a systems approach in child protection which will help in strengthening partnership, cooperation and delivery of quality services to vulnerable children. The implementation of this strategy requires building capacities of the key players at various levels. As part of this, the community structure plays a crucial role in terms of problem identification, targeting, planning and resource mobilization as well as implementation and monitoring of specific services and, eventually contribution to the sustainability of the programme. UNICEF’s experience in Ethiopia has shown that there are age-old traditional structures which play a significant role in nurturing social cohesion and community life.
The community structures vary in form and function from region to region on the basis of the existing socio-cultural factors. While these community-based structures could serve as stakeholders in addressing the issues of vulnerable children and families; 1: they don’t have a minimum standard of operation or guide 2: the structures and membership composition varies from region to region and sometimes location to location. This lack of standards complicates the formal engagement of community based organization/structures, especially for the UNICEF assisted alternative child care programme. In light of this UNICEF, in partnership with the MOWCYA, has planned to develop a guide for community based structures/Community Care Coalitions engaged in social protection programming throughout the country, which gives guidance on how to design, implement and monitor their social protection activities including minimum standards to be applied.
This TOR has been developed to select a consultant to develop a guide describing the ‘how to’ for community level social protection development including minimum standards of operation for community based structures engaged in providing social services in Ethiopia.
Justification Improving the lives of the most vulnerable members of the community cannot be effective or sustainable without the active involvement and ownership of the community itself and this is true of UNICEF- supported community-based programmes and activities. The community has its own way of addressing the issues of individuals and groups, which is manifested in the form of community support. Different communities have their own ways and standards of identifying problems and solving problems. While this has its own merit for the individual communities, on the other hand, it has its own problem, especially in terms of implementing national programmes in a coherent manner. Therefore, it is necessary that a standard framework is developed and put in place to guide communities in undertaking development programmes. This TOR is developed to hire an international consultant to develop a guide describing a standard framework for community structures in Ethiopia (CCCs, Afochas, Idirs, etc) undertaking social protection activities.
Objectives/Specific Tasks To produce a comprehensive document that provides operational guidance for the design, implementation and monitoring of community-level social protection activities, including the structure and minimum standard of operations for community structures/Community Care Coalitions in Ethiopia.
The methodology includes the following major components: • Reviewing relevant documents on community structures and social protection in Ethiopia • Developing tools for collecting information/data on the structure and functions of community structures engaged in social protection in Ethiopia • Conducting interview and discussions with key individuals and groups, this includes work in different regions of the country • Compiling and analyzing information as a basis for developing the framework • Writing the guide for community-level social protection structures
• Initial framework/work plan developed • Data collection methodology developed and shared • Submit the first draft of the Report to ADPH for feedback • Incorporate the feedback by ADPH on the first draft • Submit the final draft of the report
All reports must be written in English and electronic and hard copies shall be submitted to ADPH section of UNICEF for their guidance and approval.
Expected background and Experience
The potential consultant should have sound track record of supporting the establishment and/or strengthening of community-based structures to deliver social protection-type services per minimum standards.
To this end interested consultants are requested to submit an expression of interest along with a well elaborated profile, CVs , recommendation letters and other relevant supporting documents.